The effectiveness of any cryptographic system relies on the privacy and strength of its secret keys. Considering the fact that modern-day cryptographic primitives are based on the complexity of one-way mathematical problems on classical computers, the advent of a universal quantum computer threatens its existence.
Quantum Key Distribution, as a measure against those risks, is the most mature branch of quantum communications. This technology generates encryption keys under the nose of an eavesdropper between two remote parties with information-theoretic security guaranteed by quantum principles like No cloning theorem, Heisenberg uncertainty principles, etc.
Utilization of Quantum Random Number Generators in cryptographic systems for obtaining secret keys gives us a higher degree of entropy and thus a higher level of security. As they are based on the inherent randomness of nature, they can provide us with private and uniformly distributed random numbers at high speed.
Dr. Anindita Banerjee